Introduction to Stepper Motors
Introduction to Stepper Motors

A stepper motor is an electromechanical device which converts electrical pulses into discrete mechanical movements.

The shaft of a stepper motor rotates indiscrete step increments when electrical command pulses are applied to it in the proper sequence.
Stepper motors are the easiest devices for precise positioning control.

They are wildly being used in various applications for position and speed via all kinds of control signals such as digital, analog, communication, etc.

  • Basic Structure

  • Operating Principles

In response to each individual control pulse and direction signal, the drive applies power to the motor windings to cause the rotor to take a step forward, a step in reverse, or hold in position. For example, in a 1.8-degree two-phase step motor: When both phases are energized with DC current, the motor will stop rotating and hold in position. The maximum torque the motor can hold in place with rated DC current is the rated holding torque. If the current in one phase is reversed, the motor will move 1 step (1.8 degrees) in a known direction.

If the current in the other phase had been reversed, the motor would move 1 step (1.8 degrees) in the other direction. As current is reversed in each phase in sequence, the motor continues to step in the desired direction. These steps are very accurate. For a 1.8-degree step motor, there are exactly 200 steps in one revolution.

2 phase step motor with bipolar driver

2 phase step motor with unipolar driver

  • Precise Positioning Control

A stepper motor rotates with a fixed step angle, just like the second hand of a clock. This angle is called the "basic step angle." Casun' offers several types of "basic step angle" as standard motors: 2-phase stepping motors with a basic step angle of 0.9° and 1.8° and 3-phase stepping motors with a basic step angle of 1.2°.

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