Stepper motor is a common type of motor that plays an important role in various application fields. It achieves precise position control by controlling the input pulse signal, which has the characteristics of precision, efficiency, and controllability. Below, we will delve into the principles and working methods of stepper motors.
The principle of a stepper motor is based on the interaction between magnetic field and current. A typical stepper motor consists of a stator, rotor, and encoder. The stator is composed of several magnetic poles, each of which is wound with a coil. The rotor is composed of permanent magnets, whose magnetism allows it to interact with the stator. Encoder is a device used to detect the rotational position of a motor.
The working mode of stepper motors can be divided into two types: single-phase and multiphase.
A single-phase stepper motor can rotate by inputting only one pulse signal. When a pulse signal is input, the magnetic field will cause the rotor to rotate, causing one step of rotation per pulse, thereby achieving a change in position. In single-phase stepper motors, the simplest type is a reversible magnetic field rotor stepper motor, which rotates the rotor according to a certain step size by changing the sequence of coil energization.
Multiphase stepper motors require pulse signals from multiple phases to drive. Similar to single-phase stepper motors, each pulse signal triggers one step of rotation. The difference is that multiphase stepper motors have higher control accuracy and speed. Multiphase stepper motors are usually composed of two, three, or four phases, with each phase having a coil and a certain phase difference between the coils. By sequentially activating different coils, the rotation of the stepper motor can be achieved.
Whether it is a single-phase or multiphase stepper motor, precise position changes can be achieved by controlling the frequency and direction of the pulse signal. This characteristic makes stepper motors widely used in many automation equipment, such as robots, CNC machine tools, printers, etc.
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