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How does the stepper motor driver work accurately?

March 1, 2023

    Stepping motor is a special motor used for control. Its rotation is operated step by step at a fixed angle (called "step angle"). Its characteristic is that there is no accumulated error (accuracy is 100%), so it is widely used in various open-loop control.

    The operation of the stepping motor needs to be driven by an electronic device. This device is the stepping motor driver. It converts the pulse signal sent by the control system into the angular displacement of the stepping motor. In other words, every pulse signal sent by the control system makes the stepping motor rotate a step angle through the driver. So the speed of stepping motor is proportional to the frequency of pulse signal. Therefore, controlling the frequency of step pulse signal can accurately adjust the speed of the motor; By controlling the number of step pulses, the motor can be accurately positioned.

    Stepping motor is driven by subdivision driver, and its step angle becomes smaller. For example, when the driver works in 10 subdivision state, its step angle is only one tenth of the 'inherent step angle of the motor', that is to say, 'when the driver works in non-subdivision full step state, the control system sends a step pulse, and the motor rotates 1.8 °; When the subdivision driver works in 10 subdivision state, the motor only rotates 0.18 °, which is the basic concept of subdivision. The subdivision function is completely generated by the driver by precisely controlling the phase current of the motor, which is independent of the motor.

    The main advantage of the subdivided driver is that it completely eliminates the low-frequency oscillation of the motor. Low-frequency oscillation is the inherent characteristic of stepping motor (especially reactive motor), and subdivision is the only way to eliminate it. If your stepping motor sometimes needs to work in the resonance area (such as arc walking), the subdivision driver is the only choice. The output torque of the motor is increased.



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