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Operation principle and application analysis of screw stepping motor
Operation principle and application analysis of screw stepping motor

Working principle of screw stepping motor
The rotor of the screw stepping motor is a permanent magnet. When the current flows through the stator winding, the stator winding generates a vector magnetic field. The magnetic field will drive the rotor to rotate by an angle, so that the direction of a pair of magnetic fields of the rotor is consistent with that of the stator. When the vector magnetic field of the stator rotates by an angle. The rotor also rotates an angle with the magnetic field. Each time an electric pulse is input, the motor rotates an angle to advance one step. The output angular displacement of the screw stepping motor is directly proportional to the input pulse number, and the speed is directly proportional to the pulse frequency. Change the order in which the windings are energized and the motor will reverse. Therefore, the rotation of the stepping motor can be controlled by controlling the number and frequency of pulses and the energization sequence of each phase winding of the motor.
Heating principle of screw stepping motor all kinds of motors commonly seen have iron core and winding coil inside. If the winding has resistance, power on will produce loss, and the loss is directly proportional to the square of resistance and current, which is what we often call copper loss. If the current is not standard DC or sine wave, it will also produce harmonic loss; The iron core has hysteresis eddy current effect and will also produce loss in alternating magnetic field. Its size is related to material, current, frequency and voltage, which is called iron loss. Copper loss and iron loss will be expressed in the form of heating, which will affect the efficiency of the motor. Screw stepping motor generally pursues positioning accuracy and torque output, with low efficiency, large current, high harmonic component, and the frequency of current alternating also changes with speed. Therefore, stepping motor generally has heating, which is more serious than general AC motor.
Application of screw stepping motor
1. When the screw stepping motor works, each phase winding is not constantly energized, but energized in turn according to a certain law.
2. The angle at which the rotor rotates with each input pulse electrical signal is called the step angle.
3. The screw stepping motor can carry out angle control or speed control according to specific instructions. During angle control, the stator winding is changed once for each pulse input, the output shaft rotates an angle, the number of steps is consistent with the number of pulses, and the angular displacement of output shaft rotation is directly proportional to the input pulse. During speed control, a continuous pulse is fed into the winding of the stepper motor, each phase winding continuously circulates electricity, the stepper motor rotates continuously, and its speed is directly proportional to the pulse frequency. By changing the power on sequence, that is, changing the rotation direction of stator magnetic field, the forward or reverse rotation of motor can be controlled.
4. The screw stepping motor has self-locking capability. When the control pulse stops input and the winding controlled by the last pulse continues to be energized with DC, the motor can remain in a fixed position, that is, stop at the end position of the angular displacement controlled by the last pulse. In this way, the stepper motor can realize rotor positioning during shutdown.

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