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The motion modes of stepper motors: characteristics and differences of full step, half step, and micro step

2023-11-27

Latest company news about The motion modes of stepper motors: characteristics and differences of full step, half step, and micro step

    Stepper motor is a type of motor commonly used for precise positioning and motion control. Its uniqueness lies in its ability to rotate according to a predetermined step angle, thereby achieving precise position adjustment. This article will focus on three common motion modes of stepper motors: full step, half step, and micro step, as well as their characteristics and differences.
 

    1. Full step motion mode:
 

    Full step motion mode is one of the most basic working modes for stepper motors. In full step mode, when the current passes through each coil of the stepper motor, a fixed step angle is generated. This means that for each pulse input, the stepper motor will rotate at a fixed angle. The characteristics of the full step mode are as follows:
 

    ·Simple and reliable: In full step mode, the stepper motor only needs to receive external pulse signals to operate normally.
 

    ·Relatively high torque: Due to the current passing through each coil of the stepper motor, the full step mode usually provides a higher torque output.
 

    ·Relatively low accuracy: Due to a fixed step angle, the full step mode may have certain errors in fine position adjustment.
 

    2. Half step motion mode:
 

    Half step mode is an improvement on the full step mode. In half step mode, each pulse input will cause the stepper motor to rotate by half the step angle, which is half of the step angle. The characteristics of the half step mode are as follows:
 

    ·Higher resolution: Compared to full step mode, half step mode provides higher resolution and positioning accuracy because the step angle is halved.
 

    ·Relatively small torque: Due to the current only passing through half of the coil of the stepper motor, the torque output in half step mode is usually slightly lower than that in full step mode.
 

    3. Micro step mode:
 

    Micro step motion mode is the most advanced motion mode for stepper motors. In microstep mode, the stepper motor rotates at a smaller step angle by changing the magnitude and direction of the current. The characteristics of the micro step mode are as follows:
 

    ·High resolution and smoothness: Microstep mode can provide very high resolution and smooth motion, enabling more precise position adjustment.
 

    ·Lower torque: Due to the current only passing through a portion of the coils of the stepper motor, the torque output in microstep mode is relatively low.
 

    In the motion mode of a stepper motor, full step, half step, and micro step each have their own characteristics. The full step mode is simple and reliable, providing greater torque, but with relatively low accuracy. Half step mode provides higher resolution, but slightly lower torque than full step mode. The micro step mode has the highest resolution and smoothness, but the torque is relatively low. According to specific application requirements, selecting the appropriate motion mode can achieve more precise positioning and motion control.

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