One of the reasons why the stepping motor only vibrates and does not rotate is that the wiring is wrong. The motor rotates forward and backward a little, and then it vibrates forward and backward. The reason why the stepping motor only vibrates but does not rotate is that the program is wrong. The program pulse is given too fast, and the motor cannot respond, so it has to follow the vibration.
Solution 1: Check the circuit if the stepping motor only vibrates and does not rotate. If it is the first wiring, be sure to confirm the phase line of the motor, or wire according to the drawing. When the stepper motor only vibrates and does not rotate, the driver wiring should not be connected incorrectly; If the stepping motor in use only vibrates and does not rotate, first check whether the motor circuit is damaged or disconnected. If it is disconnected, it will also cause the situation you said.
The second solution to the problem that the stepping motor only vibrates but does not rotate is to check the load. If the load is too heavy, the motor will be disconnected from the load for inspection.
Solution 3: Check the frequency of the input pulse. The input frequency of the stepping motor should not be too high. If it is too high, the motor will not rotate.
What is the reason why the stepping motor only vibrates and does not rotate? Another reason is that the take-off frequency is too high or the load is heavy, and the torque output by the motor is not enough.