Permanent magnet motor is a kind of motor that uses the magnetic field generated by permanent magnet to realize motor rotation. Permanent magnets usually use rare earth permanent magnetic materials, such as neodymium iron boron, cobalt boron, etc. These materials have the characteristics of high magnetic energy product and high coercivity, and can produce high intensity magnetic field.
The working principle of permanent magnet motor is based on Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction and Lorentz force principle. When the current passes through the coil of the permanent magnet motor, a magnetic field will be generated around the coil. This magnetic field will interact with the permanent magnet, making the permanent magnet subject to a certain torque,
thus generating rotation.
Specifically, in the permanent magnet motor, the permanent magnet is the main component that generates the magnetic field, and the coil is the part that generates the current. When the current passes through the coil, a magnetic field will be generated around the coil. This magnetic field will interact with the permanent magnet, so that the permanent magnet will receive a torque and start to rotate. The current direction in the coil and the magnetic field direction of the permanent magnet determine the torque direction of the permanent magnet, which makes the motor rotate.
Permanent magnet motor can be divided into permanent magnet synchronous motor, permanent magnet DC motor, permanent magnet stepper motor and other types, and its working principle and speed regulation mode are also different. The main characteristic of permanent magnet motor is that it does not need external excitation, so it has the advantages of simple structure, small size, light weight, etc., but also has the disadvantages of high cost and easy magnetization failure.